Controlled and Uncontrolled Standby Time and Pay


A California worker may perhaps be exempt or nonexempt. An exempt personnel holds an administrative, govt, qualified, or an outdoors sale position, and is not entitled to pay out for standby or on-simply call time.

Any other personnel is nonexempt and is entitled to extra pay for standby time, which it’s possible negotiated earlier mentioned the minimum wage of $8.00 for every hour.

If a nonexempt staff is demanded to stay in the employer’s location of business and reply to requests for help or emergencies, he or she need to be paid out for all the hrs in the premises, together with waiting around time.

If a nonexempt staff is not necessary to continue being in the employer’s location of business, but is necessary to reply to a request by the employer to return to work for an crisis, he or she need to be paid out for standby time when the time is controlled, somewhat than uncontrolled.

Several hours Worked Under Federal And State Expectations:

“Hours Worked,” less than the Federal Honest Labor Criteria Act and the applying regulation (29 C.F.R. 778.223) for which an personnel really should be compensated, consist of: ((a) all the time in the course of which an worker is required to be on duty or to be on the employer’s premises or at a prescribed place of work and (b) all the time in the course of which an personnel is suffered or permitted to function whether or not or not he is essential to do so.”

The definition of “hours worked” adopted by the California Division of Labor Expectations Enforcement in 1WC Wage Orders, Sections 2(K), on the other hand, additional broadly contains: (a) all the time for the duration of which the worker is matter to the handle of the employer and all the time in the course of which the staff is suffered or permitted to perform.

It really should be famous, on the other hand, that personnel in the health treatment industry offering affected person care may perhaps work 12-hour shifts at straight time pay out. And personnel demanded to reside on the employer’s premises are exempt from overtime fork out but not minimum amount wage.

Controlled Standby Time Paid out By Employer:

Whether standby time is regarded “controlled” by the employer and should be paid is dependent on the limits placed on the use of the time for the individual purposes of the personnel.

If the standby time is completely unrestricted or free for use for own reasons, it is uncontrolled and is not demanded to be paid out. This standby time will not be viewed as compensable hrs worked. But if the employer so desires, uncontrolled standby time may well be compensated lower than least wage or by a lump sum.

As early as July 9, 1984, the California Supreme Court docket, via Mr. Justice Reynoso, adopted a two-action evaluation in concluding that the considerable limitations put on the time (Code 7) of the officers, sergeants and dispatchers of Madera Police Section transformed that time into several hours worked. See MaderaLaw enforcement Officers Assn. v. City of Madera(1984), 36 Cal.3d 403 204 Cal.Rptr. 422 682 P.2d 1087.

The two-phase evaluation consists of: 1st, examining “irrespective of whether the constraints on off-responsibility time are primarily directed towards the fulfillment of the employer’s necessities and policies” and next, analyzing “no matter whether the employees’ off-responsibility time is so considerably limited that they are not able to have interaction in personal pursuits.”

The two questions, according to the California Supreme Courtroom in Madera, supra, ought to be answered in the affirmative.

In 1992, the Ninth Circuit looked at two predominant things in determining no matter whether waiting time is used mainly for the gain of the employer, to wit: (1) the diploma to which staff are free of charge to engage in private functions and (2) the agreements in between the get-togethers, in Owens v. Nearby No. 169, Ass’n. of Western Pulp and Paper Workers, 975 F. 2d 347 (9th Cir. 1992).

In Owens, supra, the Ninth Circuit concluded that no compensation was needed for on-phone time since the workforce enjoyed a extensive range of own functions on on-contact hrs and they agreed to the on-get in touch with method by continuing to operate under its terms.

Phone-Again Journey Time And Shell out:

A nonexempt personnel on uncontrolled standby could be known as back again by an employer to conduct excess perform for an crisis soon after the termination of the scheduled hrs of work.

This sort of an employee have to be compensated for all journey time used in responding to an emergency job of the employer’s buyers at the customer’s place of small business, beneath California’s Wage and Hour Division.

But regardless of whether travel time used by an worker for a phone-back again to and from the employer’s normal position of enterprise is compensable is unclear. Because California’s Wage and Hour Division has no formal posture thereon, lots of California businesses do not pay back for get in touch with-back travel time.

The doing the job time included in a connect with back again is “hours worked” and must be compensated by approaches appropriate to the California Wage and Hour Division, to wit: (1) at the charge of one particular and just one-50 % situations the common hourly charge or bigger for genuine time put in on the get in touch with-back again or (2) by certain selection of several hours of do the job or pay back at the fee of just one and a single-fifty percent instances the normal hourly amount or better, for each individual simply call-back again, in line with federal laws. See Wage and Hour Manual by Richard J. Simmons, Castle Publications Constrained, pp. 234-235, 321-322.


Payment for standby (on-contact) time of a nonexempt employee relies upon on no matter if it is controlled or uncontrolled by the employer.

If controlled, it have to be compensated if uncontrolled, it require not be paid out. The unsettled concerns are payment of travel time of contact-back again and method of payment of time invested on connect with-back.


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