Running a blog – Are You Exposing Your self To Authorized Liabilities?


In November 2006, Blogging Asia: A Home windows Are living Report launched by Microsoft’s MSN and Windows Live On-line Companies Small business uncovered that 46% or practically fifty percent of the on the web inhabitants have a weblog [Blogging Phenomenon Sweeps Asia available at].

Running a blog Asia: A Windows Stay Report was executed on line on the MSN portal across 7 international locations in Asia specifically Hong Kong, India, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand. Curiously, the report found that 56% of Malaysians blogged to specific their sights, though 49% blogged to preserve mates and loved ones current.

This report focuses on Malaysian regulation even so as the Online transcends boundaries and jurisdictions hence the guidelines of a lot of nations could use. In Malaysia, bloggers facial area lawful hazards that carry civil or criminal liabilities such as
(a) copyright
(b) trademark
(c) defamation and
(d) sedition.

Other than the higher than, a blogger need to look at other authorized dangers this kind of as fraud, breach of confidentiality and misrepresentation which will not be dealt with in this short article.

Copyright protects the way artists or authors categorical their concept or fact on a piece of work but not the underlying notion or reality by itself. Copyright safeguards originality of the function and prohibits unauthorised copying. Copyright protection is eligible for the next operates refer to Section 7 (1) of the Copyright Act, 1987:-
(a) literary functions, such as written works, novels, supply codes in laptop plan and world-wide-web internet pages and information in multimedia productions
(b) musical and remarkable is effective, these kinds of as musical score, plays and tv scripts
(c) artistic functions, such as drawings, sculptures and photos and
(d) sound recordings and films, these as movies (classic celluloid and different movie formats), documents, tapes and CDs of audio, drama or lectures.

Regrettably, substantially of the copyright infringement happening on the World-wide-web goes undetected. New weblogs at moments use current blogs for its information and this is accomplished through copying or linking. Aside from that, posting copyrighted pictures, designs, product or service photographs or products packaging from another website is also illegal.

There are “regulations of thumb” to comply with when developing or putting up contents these kinds of as:- (a) make one’s own primary image, graphic, code and words and phrases (b) use licensed operates inside of the scope of permitted use laid down by the proprietor and (c) use cost-free visuals off the Internet as long as the phrases of the creator of the impression are followed.

The exact “principles of thumb” implement when submitting programming scripts as it is typically a violation of copyright law to appropriate programming scripts from third events. With regards to postings on one’s website by 3rd get-togethers, the weblog operator might acquire an implied licence to the postings made by 3rd events. When featuring podcast i.e. recorded and dowloadable audio file to be downloaded from weblogs it is ideal that the podcast do not incorporate any copyrighted new music belonging to many others so guarding oneself from any copyright infringement suits.

If copyright guards the way thoughts or information are expressed, trademark on the other hand protects terms, designs, phrases, numbers, drawings or photos affiliated with merchandise and products and services.

A trademark operator enjoys exclusive right to use his mark in relation to his items and products and services refer Part 35 (1) of the Trademark Act, 1976. Trademark security grants suitable to the trademark owner to prevent other people from utilizing equivalent trademark with identical merchandise or very similar goods that is possible to cause confusion to the public refer Area 19 (1) and 19 (2) of the Trademark Act, 1976.

How does a blogger infringe trademark belonging to yet another? One particular example is when a blogger posts hyperlinks on logos belonging to a trademark proprietor. When a visitor clicks on the trademark it will specifically guide the visitor to the blogger’s web site instead of directing the visitor to the trademark owner’s website.

These types of linking might trigger confusion or deception as it raises serious threat that the weblog is in some way linked with or associated to the trademark owner’sproducts and solutions.

Commonly, the expression defamation refers to a phony statement manufactured about somebody or an business that is detrimental to their standing. The person publishing the statement will have to have acknowledged or ought to have identified that the statement was fake. Whilst the Net provides the arena in which defaming statement can be produced or printed, there is no unique laws that discounts with defamation on the Net in Malaysia.

In Malaysia, the Defamation Act, 1957 applies to publications in printed materials and broadcasting through radio or tv. Due to the fact the legislation applies to revealed or broadcast elements, for this reason in basic principle it applies to resources this kind of as weblogs and web sites published on the World wide web.

As defamation legislation is intricate there is a have to have to distinguish whether or not a defamatory assertion is a libel (published kind) or slander (spoken words). In a case of libel, if it is determined that the assertion is defamatory then there are presumptions from the author or the publisher. In the circumstance slander, there is typically the prerequisite to evidence true damages or unique damages suffered owing to the defamatory assertion. Consequently, slander legislation does not implement to weblogs as it does not drop inside the ambit of broadcasting the slanderous terms by means of radio or television.

Owing to swift changes to the Web and the convergence of technologies, one particular will marvel no matter if the courts will apply the libel regulation or slander law when blogs transformed from text to speech structure are transmitted on the World wide web. However, all this relies upon on proving defamation and obtaining the identification of the blogger which can be an huge endeavor because of to the anonymity of the World wide web and its all over the world scope.

An additional lawful threat is when blogs are used to disseminate wrong,incomplete or misleading facts regarding racial disturbances or contents that bring about hatred or contempt in the direction of the govt or the ruler. In Malaysia, numerous offences are delivered for in the Sedition Act 1948 such as it is an offence for any human being to print, publish or distribute any seditious publication- see Area 4 of the Sedition Act, 1948 for other offences. Whether the provisions in the Act use to publications on the Web have not been judicially established.

In Singapore the sedition legislation was used in 2005 the place the Singapore court docket jailed two users for publishing seditious remarks on the World-wide-web- Two jailed for ‘sedition’ on net, South China Morning Post, Saturday, October 8, 2005. The South China Early morning Put up claimed that the scenario is regarded as a landmark case underscoring the government’s makes an attempt to regulate on the net expression and crack down on racial intolerance. The two cases represented the to start with time Singaporeans had been prosecuted and convicted for racist expression below its Sedition Act.

Arising from the circumstance of the racist bloggers, on 8 November 2006 the Singapore Governing administration proposed changes to its Penal Code taking into account the effects of engineering this sort of as the Web and cell phones- refer to Singapore Ministry of House Affairs, Consultation Paper on the Proposed Penal Code Amendments at web site 2. The amendments deal with offences fully commited by means of electronic medium these as Area 298 (uttering words, etc with deliberate intent to wound the spiritual thoughts of any individual) to include the wounding of racial feelings as perfectly, Part 499 (defamation) and Segment 505 (statements conducing to general public mischief) to develop and include things like these “posted in penned, electronic or other media” see Singapore Penal Code (Modification) Monthly bill at internet pages 8 and 20. These amendments when handed empower the law enforcement and state prosecutors to prosecute individuals with offending weblogs- Cf.Sections 298, 499 and 505 of the Malaysian Penal Code (Revised 1997).

There are motives why the authorities are having running a blog seriously as 50 percent of the people today that took part in the Blogging Asia: A Home windows Dwell Report study consider that blog contents are as honest as conventional media and a quarter of the respondents imagine blogs to be the fastest way to discover about news and recent affairs.

With these types of reliance on weblogs, contents containing bogus, incomplete or deceptive information and facts posted on weblogs not only may cause stress, anger, contempt or political scandals it may possibly also result in political and financial instability.

The Internet offers challenges to current rules that are gradual to present adequate security to a bash with regard to the use and material of blogs. At this time, codes of follow for Internet buyers together with bloggers have not been proposed as section of the World-wide-web regulatory regime at this time operating in Malaysia.

Rather, bloggers need to have to practise self-regulation and realize the authorized implications of running a blog to make certain that their weblogs are composed in a responsible and lawful way. In get to defend themselves, bloggers may possibly give phrases of use and right disclaimer to provide some degree of convenience and safety from 3rd events postings on their blogs.

For all those bloggers who are not self-informed of the lawful hazards, efforts should really be made to educate and raise awareness to those bloggers. Most likely the social obligation lies on the Online company companies and web page service providers to develop a blogger’s code of ethics to teach its bloggers to be moral in direction of their readers, the individuals they produce about and the authorized ramifications of their actions.

1st Published at Recent Legislation Journal April Section 2 [2007] 2 CLJ i


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